Whitepaper Collection

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Abraham, I., Malkhi, D., Nayak, K., Ren, L., & Spiegelman, A. (2017). Solida: A Blockchain Protocol Based On Reconfigurable Byzantine Consensus.
Adam, A., Thellmann, P., & Dalkilic, D. (2018, June 8). Bounty0x; ‘Rewarding the Token Economy.’ White Paper. Download
Al-Naji, N., Chen, J., & Diao, L. (2017, June 20). Basis: A Price-Stable Cryptocurrency with an Algorithmic Central Bank. Download
Ali, M., Nelson, J., Shea, R., & Freedman, M. J. (2016). Blockstack: Design and Implementation of a Global Naming System with Blockchains. Retrieved from https://blockstack.org/blockstack.pdf
Bartoletti, M., Gessa, D., & Podda, A. S. (2016). Contractvm: decentralized applications on Bitcoin. Retrieved from http://contractvm.github.io/cvm-whitepaper.pdf
Brave Software. (2018, March 13). Basic Attention Token (BAT) Blockchain Based Digital Advertising. Download
Buterin, V. (2013). Ethereum White Paper: A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform. Retrieved from https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper Download
Chen, J., Gorbunov, S., Micali, S., & Vlachos, G. (2018, April 25). Algorand Agreement Super Fast and Partition Resilient Byzantine Agreement. Download
Coelho, I. M., Coelho, V. N., Lin, P., & Zhang, E. (2019). Community Yellow Paper: A Technical Specification for NEO Blockchain. Download
Coventry, A. (2012, April 25). Nooshare: A Decentralized Ledger of Shared Computational Resources. Retrieved from http://web.mit.edu/alex_c/www/nooshare.pdf Download
Cuende, L., & Izquierdo, J. (2017, April 20). Aragon Network a Decentralized Infrastructure for Value Exchange. Retrieved from https://github.com/aragon/whitepaper Download
Fiedur, B. (2017, July). bitJob Whitepaper. Download
Findlay, S., & Hileman, G. (2017). ARC Reserve Currency: Technical Whitepaper. Download
Friend, T., Whitlock, C., & Paley, K. (2018, December). ASHElements. Retrieved from https://ashelements.io/files/AshElements_Whitepaper.pdf Download
Georgiev, I., Stoyanov, D., & Ivanova, V. (2017). AdEx: A Decentralized Ad Exchange. Download
Gerboles, P. (2018). The Alive Casino Gaming with a Purpose. Download
Green, M., & Miers, I. (2016). Bolt: Anonymous Payment Channels for Decentralized Currencies. Retrieved from http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/701.pdf
Guo, S. (2017). Cypherium: A Scalable And Permis-Sion-Less Blockchain Platform. Retrieved from http://www.cypherium.io/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/cypherium_whitepaper.pdf
Guo, Y., & Jr, C. M. (2017). Crysto: A Scalable And Permission-Less Blockchain Platform. Retrieved from http://crysto.io/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/crysto_whitepaper.pdf
Guo, Y., & Jr, C. M. (2017). Xcoin: A Scalable And Permission-Less Blockchain Platform. Retrieved from http://www.xcoinplatform.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/xcoin_whitepaper.pdf
Heilman, E., Baldimtsi, F., Alshenibr, L., Scafuro, A., & Goldberg, S. (2016). TumbleBit: An Untrusted Tumbler for Bitcoin-Compatible Anonymous Payments. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/12b6/6f7180072dd8d5ac1c935b12df381d71ad81.pdf Download
Hertzog, E., Benartzi, G., & Benartzi, G. (2017, May 30). Bancor Protocol Continuous Liquidity and Asynchronous Price Discovery for Tokens through their Smart Contracts; aka “Smart Tokens.” Download
Hess, Z., Malahov, Y., & Pettersson, J. (2017, January 23). Æternity blockchain The trustless, decentralized and purely functional oracle machine. Download
Hess, Z., Malahov, Y., & Pettersson, J. (2016). Æternity Blockchain. Retrieved from http://blockchain.aeternity.com/%C3%A6ternity-blockchain-whitepaper.pdf
Kitcharoen, N. C. (2018, June 10). Bitdollar Fund. Download
Mihaylov, M., Jurado, S., Avellana, N., Van Moffaert, K., de Abril, I. M., & Nowe, A. (2014). Nrgcoin: Virtual Currency for Trading of Renewable Energy in Smart Grids. In European Energy Market (EEM), 2014 11th International Conference on the (pp. 1–6). IEEE. Retrieved from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6861213/
Murphy, W., & Wagner, H. (2018, July 10). Botchain: The Platform for Identity & Audit of AI Systems Project Whitepaper. Download
Nakamoto, S. (2008, October 31). Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. Download
Oved, M., & Mosites, D. (2017, May 10). Swap: A Peer-to-Peer Protocol for Trading Ethereum Tokens. Download
Oxchild Corp. (2017). Masternode Mediation Platform. Download
Peterson, J., & Krug, J. (2018). Augur: a Decentralized, Open-Source Platform for Prediction Markets. Download
Prince Gupta. (2020). Blockchain & IOT: Revolutionizing the Freight Claims. Download
Saberhagen, N. van. (2018). CryptoNote. Download
Samid, G. (2014, April 6). Bitcoin. Bitmint: Reconciling Bitcoin with Central Banks. Retrieved from https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/244/20140418:045015 Download
Schuh, F., & Larimer, D. (2017). Bitshares 2.0: Financial Smart Contract Platform. Download
Sovrin Foundation. (2018, January). Sovrin: A Protocol and Token for Self- Sovereign Identity and Decentralized Trust. Retrieved from https://sovrin.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Sovrin-Protocol-and-Token-White-Paper.pdf Download
Team Rocket. (2018, May 16). Snowflake to Avalanche: A Novel Metastable Consensus Protocol Family for Cryptocurrencies. Retrieved from https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmUy4jh5mGNZvLkjies1RWM4YuvJh5o2FYopNPVYwrRVGV Download
The​ ​ARK​ ​Crew. (2017). ARK​ ​​Whitepaper A​ ​Platform​ ​for​ ​Consumer​ ​Adoption. Download
The Bettex project Development Team. (2018). Bettex White Paper. Download
Thomas, S., & Schwartz, E. (2016). A Protocol for Interledger Payments. Retrieved from https://interledger.org/interledger.pdf
Trezentos, P., Pires, D., & Aptoide Team. (2017, November 6). AppCoins Distributed and Trusted App-based Transactions Protocol. Download
Wang, T., & Liu, N. (2018). Ventureum: A Milestone-Driven Community-Governed Crowdfunding Protocol For Blockchain Projects.
Warren, W., & Bandeali, A. (2017, February 21). 0x: An open protocol for decentralized exchange on the Ethereum blockchain. Download
White, B. (2016, May 29). Qeditas: A Formal Library as a Bitcoin Spin-Off. Retrieved from http://qeditas.org/docs/qeditas.pdf Download
Willett, J., Hidskes, M., Johnston, D., Gross, R., & Schneider, M. (2018, August 23). Omni Protocol Specification (formerly Mastercoin). Retrieved from https://github.com/OmniLayer/spec (Original work published October 29, 2013)
Zhukov, G., & Kisliy, V. (2018, February 20). Bloquid System for collective management of issuance of proof-of-mortgage digital assets. Download
1x2 Coin. (2018, October). Download
X8 Project. (2018). Download
Achain Blockchain Whitepaper. (2019). Download
Ælf - A Multi-Chain Parallel Computing Blockchain Framework. (2017, November 25). Download

Annotated Whitepaper Collection

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Bitcoin whitepaper (October 31, 2008 – current)

Nakamoto, S. (2008, October 31). Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. Download

Bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency: a privately-issued, digital money. Designed around 2007-2008 and released in early 2009 by “Satoshi Nakamoto,” Bitcoin was a response to the 2008 global economic crisis. But, Bitcoin was not the first private money, nor the first digital money, and not even the first to use cryptography (for example, David Chaum’s DigiCash system existed decades prior). Bitcoin is a peer to peer, ledger-based system of private money.

Transactions are validated and chained to form secure blocks and blocks are sequentially chained to form a “blockchain.” Blocks are replicated and distributed through a peer to peer network of computers that are responsible for independently verifying incoming blocks while creating a local copy. Local copies are kept in sync across the network by a consensus protocol. ~ Quinn DuPont

Ethereum whitepaper (December 2013 – current)

Buterin, V. (2013). Ethereum White Paper: A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform. Retrieved from https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper Download

The original Ethereum whitepaper was written by Vitalik Buterin and published on his blog in December 2013. It was entitled “Ethereum: The Ultimate Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform.” The current version, which has been extensively revised since its inception, is stored on Github. Ethereum was inspired by Mastercoin and other early revisions of the Bitcoin blockchain, and is widely considered the first serious attempt to create a blockchain infrastructure capable of general distributed computing. It is used widely for running decentralized apps (Dapps) across many industries, including enterprise solutions. The Ethereum software is open source and actively, collaboratively produced by the community. The Ethereum Foundation supports and promotes development of the Ethereum ecosystem. The Ethereum whitepaper was substantially revised by the Ethereum Yellowpaper, written by Gavin Wood. ~ Quinn DuPont

Omni whitepaper (January 2015 – current); formerly Mastercoin (January 2012 – January 2015)

Willett, J., Hidskes, M., Johnston, D., Gross, R., & Schneider, M. (2018, August 23). Omni Protocol Specification (formerly Mastercoin). Retrieved from https://github.com/OmniLayer/spec (Original work published October 29, 2013)

Mastercoin was one of the original, high-profile Bitcoin-related projects that sought to layer services on top of the existing Bitcoin blockchain. It inspired many others, such as Ethereum and Counterparty (see this history). As Omni, it remains tied to the Bitcoin blockchain and focuses on currency exchange and crowdfunding. Current specification (whitepaper) is stored on GithubWebsite. ~ Quinn DuPont

Perlin whitepaper (June 2018 – current)

Iwasaki, K. (2018). Perlin: Official Whitepaper Release. Retrieved from https://medium.com/perlin-network/perlin-network-official-whitepaper-release-b019d4ad39ed

A future, leaderless blockchain using metastable, quorum-focused consensus protocol to enable smart contracts and high-performance transaction processing. A market for distributed computing power is also projected, using a cryptographic function called a dioden to establish proof of elapsed time (needed to calculate compute availability and payment). Website. ~ Quinn DuPont