Whitepaper Collection

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Abraham, I., Malkhi, D., Nayak, K., Ren, L., & Spiegelman, A. (2017). Solida: A Blockchain Protocol Based On Reconfigurable Byzantine Consensus.
Adam, A., Thellmann, P., & Dalkilic, D. (2018). Bounty0x; ‘Rewarding the Token Economy.’ White Paper. Download
Al-Naji, N., Chen, J., & Diao, L. (2017). Basis: A Price-Stable Cryptocurrency with an Algorithmic Central Bank. Download
Ali, M., Nelson, J., Shea, R., & Freedman, M. J. (2016). Blockstack: Design and Implementation of a Global Naming System with Blockchains. https://blockstack.org/blockstack.pdf
Bartoletti, M., Gessa, D., & Podda, A. S. (2016). Contractvm: decentralized applications on Bitcoin. http://contractvm.github.io/cvm-whitepaper.pdf
Brave Software. (2018). Basic Attention Token (BAT) Blockchain Based Digital Advertising. Download
Buterin, V. (2013). Ethereum White Paper: A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform. https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper Download
Chen, J., Gorbunov, S., Micali, S., & Vlachos, G. (2018). Algorand Agreement Super Fast and Partition Resilient Byzantine Agreement. Download
Coelho, I. M., Coelho, V. N., Lin, P., & Zhang, E. (2019). Community Yellow Paper: A Technical Specification for NEO Blockchain. Download
Coventry, A. (2012). Nooshare: A Decentralized Ledger of Shared Computational Resources. http://web.mit.edu/alex_c/www/nooshare.pdf Download
Cuende, L., & Izquierdo, J. (2017). Aragon Network a Decentralized Infrastructure for Value Exchange. https://github.com/aragon/whitepaper Download
Fiedur, B. (2017). bitJob Whitepaper. Download
Findlay, S., & Hileman, G. (2017). ARC Reserve Currency: Technical Whitepaper. Download
Friend, T., Whitlock, C., & Paley, K. (2018). ASHElements. https://ashelements.io/files/AshElements_Whitepaper.pdf Download
Georgiev, I., Stoyanov, D., & Ivanova, V. (2017). AdEx: A Decentralized Ad Exchange. Download
Gerboles, P. (2018). The Alive Casino Gaming with a Purpose. Download
Green, M., & Miers, I. (2016). Bolt: Anonymous Payment Channels for Decentralized Currencies. http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/701.pdf
Guo, S. (2017). Cypherium: A Scalable And Permis-Sion-Less Blockchain Platform. http://www.cypherium.io/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/cypherium_whitepaper.pdf
Guo, Y., & Jr, C. M. (2017). Crysto: A Scalable And Permission-Less Blockchain Platform. http://crysto.io/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/crysto_whitepaper.pdf
Guo, Y., & Jr, C. M. (2017). Xcoin: A Scalable And Permission-Less Blockchain Platform. http://www.xcoinplatform.info/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/xcoin_whitepaper.pdf
Heilman, E., Baldimtsi, F., Alshenibr, L., Scafuro, A., & Goldberg, S. (2016). TumbleBit: An Untrusted Tumbler for Bitcoin-Compatible Anonymous Payments. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/12b6/6f7180072dd8d5ac1c935b12df381d71ad81.pdf Download
Hertzog, E., Benartzi, G., & Benartzi, G. (2017). Bancor Protocol Continuous Liquidity and Asynchronous Price Discovery for Tokens through their Smart Contracts; aka “Smart Tokens.” Download
Hess, Z., Malahov, Y., & Pettersson, J. (2017). Æternity blockchain The trustless, decentralized and purely functional oracle machine. Download
Hess, Z., Malahov, Y., & Pettersson, J. (2016). Æternity Blockchain. http://blockchain.aeternity.com/%C3%A6ternity-blockchain-whitepaper.pdf
Kitcharoen, N. C. (2018). Bitdollar Fund. Download
Mihaylov, M., Jurado, S., Avellana, N., Van Moffaert, K., de Abril, I. M., & Nowe, A. (2014). Nrgcoin: Virtual Currency for Trading of Renewable Energy in Smart Grids. European Energy Market (EEM), 2014 11th International Conference on The, 1–6. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6861213/
Murphy, W., & Wagner, H. (2018). Botchain: The Platform for Identity & Audit of AI Systems Project Whitepaper. Download
Nakamoto, S. (2008). Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. Download
Oved, M., & Mosites, D. (2017). Swap: A Peer-to-Peer Protocol for Trading Ethereum Tokens. Download
Oxchild Corp. (2017). Masternode Mediation Platform. Download
Peterson, J., & Krug, J. (2018). Augur: a Decentralized, Open-Source Platform for Prediction Markets. Download
Prince Gupta. (2020). Blockchain & IOT: Revolutionizing the Freight Claims. Download
Saberhagen, N. van. (2018). CryptoNote. Download
Samid, G. (2014). Bitcoin. Bitmint: Reconciling Bitcoin with Central Banks. https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/244/20140418:045015 Download
Schuh, F., & Larimer, D. (2017). Bitshares 2.0: Financial Smart Contract Platform. Download
Sovrin Foundation. (2018). Sovrin: A Protocol and Token for Self- Sovereign Identity and Decentralized Trust. https://sovrin.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/Sovrin-Protocol-and-Token-White-Paper.pdf Download
Team Rocket. (2018). Snowflake to Avalanche: A Novel Metastable Consensus Protocol Family for Cryptocurrencies. https://ipfs.io/ipfs/QmUy4jh5mGNZvLkjies1RWM4YuvJh5o2FYopNPVYwrRVGV Download
The​ ​ARK​ ​Crew. (2017). ARK​ ​​Whitepaper A​ ​Platform​ ​for​ ​Consumer​ ​Adoption. Download
The Bettex project Development Team. (2018). Bettex White Paper. Download
Thomas, S., & Schwartz, E. (2016). A Protocol for Interledger Payments. https://interledger.org/interledger.pdf
Trezentos, P., Pires, D., & Aptoide Team. (2017). AppCoins Distributed and Trusted App-based Transactions Protocol. Download
Wang, T., & Liu, N. (2018). Ventureum: A Milestone-Driven Community-Governed Crowdfunding Protocol For Blockchain Projects.
Warren, W., & Bandeali, A. (2017). 0x: An open protocol for decentralized exchange on the Ethereum blockchain. Download
White, B. (2016). Qeditas: A Formal Library as a Bitcoin Spin-Off. http://qeditas.org/docs/qeditas.pdf Download
Willett, J., Hidskes, M., Johnston, D., Gross, R., & Schneider, M. (2018). Omni Protocol Specification (formerly Mastercoin). https://github.com/OmniLayer/spec (Original work published 2013)
Zhukov, G., & Kisliy, V. (2018). Bloquid System for collective management of issuance of proof-of-mortgage digital assets. Download
1x2 Coin. (2018). Download
X8 Project. (2018). Download
Achain Blockchain Whitepaper. (2019). Download
Ælf - A Multi-Chain Parallel Computing Blockchain Framework. (2017). Download

Annotated Whitepaper Collection

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Bitcoin whitepaper (October 31, 2008 – current)

Nakamoto, S. (2008). Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. Download

Bitcoin is the first cryptocurrency: a privately-issued, digital money. Designed around 2007-2008 and released in early 2009 by “Satoshi Nakamoto,” Bitcoin was a response to the 2008 global economic crisis. But, Bitcoin was not the first private money, nor the first digital money, and not even the first to use cryptography (for example, David Chaum’s DigiCash system existed decades prior). Bitcoin is a peer to peer, ledger-based system of private money.

Transactions are validated and chained to form secure blocks and blocks are sequentially chained to form a “blockchain.” Blocks are replicated and distributed through a peer to peer network of computers that are responsible for independently verifying incoming blocks while creating a local copy. Local copies are kept in sync across the network by a consensus protocol. ~ Quinn DuPont

Ethereum whitepaper (December 2013 – current)

Buterin, V. (2013). Ethereum White Paper: A next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform. https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper Download

The original Ethereum whitepaper was written by Vitalik Buterin and published on his blog in December 2013. It was entitled “Ethereum: The Ultimate Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform.” The current version, which has been extensively revised since its inception, is stored on Github. Ethereum was inspired by Mastercoin and other early revisions of the Bitcoin blockchain, and is widely considered the first serious attempt to create a blockchain infrastructure capable of general distributed computing. It is used widely for running decentralized apps (Dapps) across many industries, including enterprise solutions. The Ethereum software is open source and actively, collaboratively produced by the community. The Ethereum Foundation supports and promotes development of the Ethereum ecosystem. The Ethereum whitepaper was substantially revised by the Ethereum Yellowpaper, written by Gavin Wood. ~ Quinn DuPont

Omni whitepaper (January 2015 – current); formerly Mastercoin (January 2012 – January 2015)

Willett, J., Hidskes, M., Johnston, D., Gross, R., & Schneider, M. (2018). Omni Protocol Specification (formerly Mastercoin). https://github.com/OmniLayer/spec (Original work published 2013)

Mastercoin was one of the original, high-profile Bitcoin-related projects that sought to layer services on top of the existing Bitcoin blockchain. It inspired many others, such as Ethereum and Counterparty (see this history). As Omni, it remains tied to the Bitcoin blockchain and focuses on currency exchange and crowdfunding. Current specification (whitepaper) is stored on GithubWebsite. ~ Quinn DuPont

Perlin whitepaper (June 2018 – current)

A future, leaderless blockchain using metastable, quorum-focused consensus protocol to enable smart contracts and high-performance transaction processing. A market for distributed computing power is also projected, using a cryptographic function called a dioden to establish proof of elapsed time (needed to calculate compute availability and payment). Website. ~ Quinn DuPont